Seyed Farshad Allameh
Vol 4 No 2 (2019): Spring
Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastases (ISCMs) are rare, especially in squamous non-small cell lung cancer simultaneous with Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN); diagnosing these phenomena may be challenging. We report a 56-year-old man presenting with rapidly symmetrical progressive ascending weakness and paresthesia, especially in lower extremities, urinary and fecal incontinence, without any pain or respiratory symptoms. Thoracic spine MRI with and without gadolinium revealed an enhancing intramedullary lesion at the T3-T5 level. Chest CT discovered subpleural pulmonary lesion. The result lung biopsy was consistent with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, and electrodiagnosis noted severe axonal loss in motor and sensory studies with significant membrane instability and neurogenic findings in electromyography. After 8 months, the patient received just one cycle of chemotherapy and died 6 months later. AMSAN was associated with ISCM of non- small cell lung cancer in this case, who has not been previously reported in the literature.
Isolated cerebral mucormycosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised patients. Sinus and lung were the most involved organs, while cerebral infection by mucormycosis is more fetal. This infection needs proper debridement and antifungal therapy. We report a 12-year-old diabetic girl with manifestations of fever, headache, and weakness in the right upper and lower extremities without any involvement of sinuses and lung. The patient had approximately normal routine laboratory data, and its CSF was not diagnostic. Because of its features in brain CT and MRI that suggested a necrotic lesion in the left parietal lobe, she was undergone craniotomy and received broad-spectrum antibiotics along with anti-fungal and anti-tuberculosis drugs. Histopathological findings of the mass, which was excised in craniotomy, confirmed the diagnosis of mucormycosis. Unfortunately, the patient died because of this invasive infection. The fatality of fungal infections, especially cerebral types, warn us to be aware of them in immunocompromised patients and perform the proper treatment to reduce its mortality.
Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT), commonly associated with cirrhosis of liver and thrombophilia, is one of the causes of severe abdominal pain. In the absence of non-cirrhotic non-malignant extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis, Myeloproliferative Disease (MPD) and an underlying thrombotic disorder should always be suspected and investigated. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been well-documented to increase the risk of arterial thrombotic events, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. It is also a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis. In the general population, association with portal vein thrombosis is very unusual, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe a case of Polycythemia Vera (PV) and hyperhomocysteinemia presenting with severe abdominal pain due to portal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent phlebotomy and was prescribed life-long anticoagulant, aspirin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid, then referred to a hematologist.
We present the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a boy with hair-thread penile strangulation. A 9-year-old boy was admitted with chronic ulcer around the coronal sulcus of his penis due to hair wrap. The glans was approximately hanging from the penile shaft by a very slim pedicle. We anastomosed edges of transected corpus cavernosum and urethra and covered them by dartos flap and skin. Although glans of the penis was cyanotic in post-operative hospitalization days, the outcome of surgery was satisfying.
Pulmonary embolism is a serious complication occurring in different cancers. Patients who have cancer may have complications like brain metastasis or pericardial effusion, which may change the therapeutic management of pulmonary embolism. In this article, a patient is presented with lung adenocarcinoma resulting in pericardial effusion. He was admitted with pulmonary embolism and atrial flutter, which made his management difficult.
Volvulus is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction and occurs mostly in sigmoid colon and cecum. It is more common in patients with Down syndrome. In this condition, it is even more challenging to diagnose the cause of intestinal obstruction through history and physical examination alone. Early diagnosis and intervention are critical in this condition to prevent serious side effects. Simultaneous volvulus is a sporadic case in the surgical entity. We report a very rare case of simultaneous volvulus of cecum and transverse colon, its management, and outcomes in a 20-year-old known case of Down syndrome.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDSs) is a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms that causes cytopenia and dysplasia in one or more major bone marrow cell lines. The patients with this syndrome develop clinical complications associated with progressive bone marrow destruction leading to an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia. In the treatment of this syndrome, repeated infusion of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) may lead to iron overload, which is associated with a reduction in the survival rate of patients. In this paper, we report a case with MDS whose risk of dependence on blood transfusion was interstitial and received 4 units of packed RBCs once every 4 weeks. He had enrolled in our current clinical trial of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) in Iranian MDS patients. This 68-year-old man was treated with M2000, 500-mg capsule every 12 hours for 3 months. After 3 months of treatment, he experienced a non-requirement to blood transfusion following a hemoglobin increase of more than 2.5 g/dL in his blood sample. Moreover, the patient’s life quality was improved. This case report showed that M2000 drug might be an effective treatment for transfusion- dependent MDS patients (Clinical trial identifier; IRCT20130622013739N11).
Mirror syndrome is a rare but serious condition of pregnancy characterized by fetal hydrops of any cause and maternal edema that has severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In most cases, the pregnancy should be terminated to resolve the symptoms. Some cases with mirror syndrome resolve spontaneously due to the demise of the hydropic fetus or fetal infection with parvovirus. This case is a rare complicated mirror syndrome that managed conservatively up to 34 weeks and 3 days of gestation. This case was a unique Dichorionic Diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancy with mirror syndrome, that feticide of the hydropic fetus has resolved symptoms of mirror syndrome. Although the mother’s liver enzyme increased after 3 weeks of feticide, we managed to save pregnancy by conservative treatment until 34 weeks and 3 days of gestation. Finally, the mother had a cesarean section delivery. The baby is now 6 months old with normal neurodevelopmental parameters. This case suggests that preeclampsia can happen after feticide due to twin pregnancy and the retained placenta. If we consider this event, we can manage pregnancy conservatively as a preeclamptic patient.
Seyed Farshad Allameh
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